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Quick Facts
CapitalSaint John's
Governmentconstitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
CurrencyEast Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Areatotal: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
land: 442 sq km
Population67,448 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageEnglish (official), local dialects
ReligionChristian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)

Antigua and Barbuda are two Caribbean islands that form a country that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico, off the coast of Central America. With few other natural resources, the islands have a pleasant climate that fosters tourism.

Regions

  • Barbuda - Island dependency
  • Redonda - Island dependency
  • Antigua - Has 6 parishes
    • Saint George
    • Saint John
    • Saint Mary
    • Saint Paul
    • Saint Peter
    • Saint Philip

Cities

  • Saint John's - Capital

Other destinations

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Understand

Climate

Tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation. Experiences hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts.


History

The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Independence 
1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday 
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution 
1 November 1981

Electricity

Officially 230V 60Hz. Most outlets are the British standard BS-1363 type. Generally speaking, U.S. and Canadian travelers should pack adapters for these outlets if they plan to use North American electrical equipment in Antigua & Barbuda.

Also in use are non-grounded North American NEMA 1-15 outlets. These are similar to a standard U.S. or Canadian wall outlet, but non-grounded outlets do not accept the third, round pin present on grounded plugs. Adapters are available to allow equipment with grounded (three-pin) plugs to plug into non-grounded outlets while avoiding the otherwise necessary step of cutting the grounding pin off of the plug.

Additionally, U.S. and Canadian outlets are polarized. Polarized means that one of the two vertical blades is taller/wider than the other. This is a safety feature which restricts a non-grounded plug from being inserted into an outlet "upside down". Older North American outlets found in much of Central and South America, the Caribbean and other areas may not be polarized. As such, polarized plugs may not fit into non-polarized outlets. To remedy this, the wider vertical blade on a polarized plug may be filed down to match the width of the other. Otherwise, adapters are available which accept a polarized plug and adapt it for use with a non-polarized outlet.

External links


The rest of this article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and integrate it into the article above.


Geography

Geographic coordinates 
17 03 N, 61 48 W
Area 
total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
land: 442 sq km
Area - comparative 
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Coastline 
153 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Land use 
arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 81.82% (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues 
water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

People

Population 
67,448 (July 2002 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups 
black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Religions 
Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government type 
constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Legal system 
based on English common law
Judicial branch 
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the US 
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Flag description 
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band

Economy

Economy - overview 
Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction work. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.
Labor force 
30,000
Labor force - by occupation 
commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983) (1983)
Industries 
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Agriculture - products 
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Exports - commodities 
petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Exports - partners 
OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports - commodities 
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Currency 
East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code 
XCD
Exchange rates 
East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
28,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
1,300 (1996)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
36,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
2 (1997)
Televisions 
31,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
.ag
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
16 (2000)
Internet users 
5,000 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)
Highways 
total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km
note: it is assumed that the main roads are paved; the secondary roads are assumed to be unpaved (1995)
Airports 
3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs 
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center